Photographer Raj Shetye's images show a model fighting off men on a bus, in a scene reminiscent of the rape and murder that shocked India.
Many social media users said they found the photos "disgusting" and "horrible".
Mr Shetye said the shoot was "just a depiction of the situation of women in our country" and not based on the rape.
The photos were taken down from the Behance site after angry reactions on Twitter and Facebook. The gang rape and murder of the 23-year-old physiotherapy student - dubbed Nirbhaya (fearless) by the media - led to days of protests and forced the authorities to introduce tough new anti-rape laws.
Four men were sentenced to death. A fifth, a juvenile at the time of the crime, is serving a three-year sentence.
'Disgusting, insensitive'Mr Shetye, a Mumbai-based photographer, published his photofeature The Wrong Turn last week, prompting widespread criticism on social media. "Did I just see a fashion-spread depicting the Delhi gang rape of Nirbhaya? Disgusting! I hope all associated, die of shame! Insensitive swine!," Bollywood music director Vishal Dadlani tweeted. "Whoever you are... I hope you go to jail for this," he added.